U.S. domestic politics.
The Americans are in trouble in the conduct of domestic policy and do not realize it. Their problems depend largely on the structure of the Constitution and the electoral system. A complex system that deserves a modern rendering more effective and more interesting politics. And 'a must to make a distinction between politics and policy of a single State of the Union. This fundamental consideration is true for any multinational state as Eu, CIS, China, Brazil and so on. While the national policy is concerned with the institutional problems of citizens, the EU's policy is handling international relations, defense, diplomacy and foreign policy. It should be noted that while it is normal that the policy takes care of the particular ˝ ˝ and therefore also address the problems in detail, in the EU's policy is sufficient to assume an attitude essential and coarse but within the constitutional limits (1 *)
STATE: State federal presidential democratic regime.
The President of the United States combined the functions of head of state and head of government. His term lasts four years and is renewable only once. The election of the President last about a year and take place as follows: a) - In the spring primaries in 15 states to test the popularity of the national conventions.
b) - July / August meeting of the national conventions of each political party to notify the national ticket. Each state elects two candidates for president and one vice presidential one, which also coincides with the position of chairman of the Senate. Both are in the same campaign Torale electronic government program.
c) - A popular election in November with the majority system whose elected electors ˝ ˝ (even-numbered for the appointment of the Governor of that State to the Congress) are the presidential candidates and voters of the state, plus three electors of the District of Columbia. In addition they are elected (unique American) other public positions, legal and administrative matters.
d) - In December, the electors gathered in the capital of your country elect a new U.S. president.
e) - On January 6, Congress is the counting of votes. (1 *).
f) - On 20 January U.S. President is the official swearing. It presents a list of ministers of his Government (2 *).
The U.S. Congress is the bicameral parliament with 535 MPs in the House of Representatives and 435 100 in the Senate, and shall exercise the legislative power. In the case of institutional conflict between the chambers is established, ad hoc, a Joint Parliamentary Committee, the Committee of Conference that redeems every problem. (3 *). While the term is four years, is renewed every two years representatives of the Chamber (midterm) with the proportional system in each State. With these ele-ment policy analysts Americans ˝ ˝ probing the popularity of the incumbent President, which often affect his re-election. (4 *). Senators are elected for six years, with renewal every two years by one third, two for each state.
Basically there is a potential institutional conflict which could be translated (as is often the case) in a continuous conflict between the work of the President and the Congress (in my humble opinion) is defined ˝ ˝ ˝ incorrectly checks and balances ˝ (weights and balances) since it is more a question of interference and opposition parties. (5 *) The principle is desirable, as in Italy, the control of institutional power to another in order to avoid abuse or any form of illegality, the government is proposing laws to the parliament and that the support (or reject ) and the Head of State promulgated. In the case of suspected illegality is brought before the Constitutional Court or the Parliament or the Head of State.
The Supreme Court. E 'consists of eight judges, appointed for life by the U.S. President, after the ratification of the Senate.
Member States. (50). Each State is free to establish its constitution. The Governor elected by direct universal suffrage held in the local equivalent functions of the U.S. President on the federal level. In each of the legislative power is held by two House and Senate meetings. In many states a large number of officials and judges shall be elected by the people. A state is formed by administrative counties.
The presidential system, as well as the variant semi-presidential in principle has already passed, and should be avoided because it facilitates the normal course of politics. The constitutional roles overlap and collide at the same time the first difficulties occurred and how often is used to bipartisan solutions and careless this choice creates a conflict with the electoral mandate, which gives legislative power to a party and not to another and let alone both. In Italy, where we honor a political past constantly looking for institutional improvement, the sharing is disparagingly called bipartisan mess ˝ ˝ or reversal: a disgrace!
Today, the institutional situation in the U.S. is conflicted, and therefore inefficient and harmful, since the opaque systematically constitutional authority of the parties and creates problems for supremacy in the daily relationship between President vs. Congress, Senate vs. House, President vs. Senate vs. President House. During the conflict inevitably change the initial structure: it splits the governing majority, change the Senate's majority party (elected by the people!) Idem with the Chamber, and paradoxically this is called democracy!
Sistema Elettorale. A complicare la situazione su descritta Istituzionale CI Pensa Il Sistema Elettorale. Gli elettori chiamati ad eleggere SONO i candidati al Congresso attraverso le liste elettorali di OGNI SINGOLO Stato Che contemplano essenzialmente dovuto Grandi formazioni: il Partito Democratico e quello Repubblicano. Ci possono Essere Other Partiti Che solitamente SONO creatinina Autonomamente da magnati Che riescono suscitare uno delle Nazioni Unite Notevole Seguito di potentati.
Gli Eletti - definiti Grandi elettori ˝ ˝ - SONO votanti e candidati Alla elezione del Nuovo Presidente, del Congresso ed Pubbliche Altre cariche.
Il Periodo della legislatura e Di Quattro Anni. Il Presidente puo Essere rieletto Per Una Sola Volta. La Camera OGNI Rinnovata e dovuto Anni (medio termine), ed il Senato per 1 / 3 (33 Senatori). Onestamente non ho mai Capito la comportare la NB Tutti gli ingredienti di Rinnovo. In Altre Nazioni democratiche SI eleggono i rappresentanti per Tutta la legislatura Che solitamente e di lustro delle Nazioni Unite. Purtroppo il Rinnovo crea discrepanza UNA TRA La Vecchia e la Nuova Volontà popolare! Se la Volontà Popolare INIZIALE per il Senato e la convalida per i 2 / 3, non Capisco Il Motivo del Rinnovo. Nasce INOLTRE UNA Seconda Questione non Menone IMPORTANTE. L'Esito del politico di medio termine SPESSE Volte Altera quello Precedente opacizzando la figura del Presidente e cio Rende Più acceso il Conflitto Permanente TRA le figure Istituzionali e compromettendo UNA SUA possibile ricandidatura Ancora prima il Che ha Realizzato il Programma Elettorale. Se il Presidente ha varato ambizioso piano delle Nazioni Unite la CUI Realizzazione richiede Più di lustro delle Nazioni Unite, puo succedere Che lo Stesso e stroncato un meta strada o di Che comunque SARÀ modificato ricorrendo Al Solito inciucio.
Per migliorare QUESTAÔ situazione Gli Americani dovrebbero adottare la forma italiana ˝ ˝ aggiornata:
a) - Introduzione del Sistema parlamentare monocamerale.
b) - Elezioni Politiche uno suffragio universale Diretto per eleggere il parlamento e il Premier per le Cinque Anni.
c) - Il parlamento elegge il Presidente per quattro o SEI Anni, e questi ratifica la carica del Premier.
d) - Il Premier forma il Governo di Tecnici di SUA Fiducia.
e) - Il Premier sottopone il Governo e il Programma Istituzionale al parlamento (Che potrebbe respin-gere o chiederne alcune modifiche)..
f) - Il Presidente ratifica le Leggi del Parlamento.
g) - La Corte Suprema nominata soltanto per SARÀ TRA Dieci Anni e Dai PresidenteI delle Corti Nazionali.
h) - Istituzione del Consiglio di Stato per redimere le controversie tra co Enti Pubblici e dei Ricorsi dei funzionari e Dipendenti Statali, comprese le Sezioni Nazionali.
i) - Introduzione della Piattaforma ˝ ˝ Intesa Istituzionale venire punto d'incontro tra il sole ed il premier Il Capo del Partito di opposizione per l'applicazione dei Concetti bipartisan da presentare in precostituita con UNA Maggioranza Aula e blindata.
In linea di Principio SI potrebbe chiosare Che qualsiasi Paese Democratico dovrebbe aggiornare la propria Costituzione, e Senza Limite di tempo, per rientrare nia Parametri standard e universalmente condivisi dei PAESI Democratici.
(1 *): For the Americans, no matter whether a candidate could be nominated who has not reached the numerical majority of the popular vote.
(2 *): The President as head of government may revoke the appointment of one or more ministers with the approval of the Senate. In case of resignation or near death was succeeded by his vice-chairman of the Senate. (3 *): A sort of our local Bicameral for any internal dispute.
(4 *): E 'a useless and destructive election after only two years because no government in the world can make any reform, and especially if it is a great reform. E 'deleterious because the electoral environment is harmful, if different from the existing one, creating a substantially affect the divergence of views that create a conflict in the adoption of laws, dull the figure of the U.S. President. It 's a contradiction in terms that political scientists Americans do not want to admit.
(5 *): Today the American system of control between the executive and the legislature is no longer acceptable because, in effect, instead of opposing them balance each other: that is not the same thing. Already the bicameral system itself is exceeded, if there is a clear uniformity of the composition of the parliament, if we add the conflict between institutional powers will result in an ongoing conflict hampers the conduct of the electoral laws and the same formation.
It is based on the Constitution which is the collection of fundamental laws from which derive the ordinary laws. In it are the basic principles shared (12) and have established the characteristics and structure of the state and relations between institutions and citizens. It 'a European state and guiding the European Constitution. It 'made up of regions, provinces and municipalities.
President of the Republic. E'eletto by Parliament and holds a charge for only seven years. Represents the body of the state and all Italians. And 'most prominent figure on superpartes and government agencies. Promulgates Acts of Parliament.
Parliament. It 'a bicameral system with the Chamber of Deputies (630) and Senate (315). It is for the legislature. Members of parliament are elected every five years.
Chairman of the Board. E 'confidential executive power. E 'in charge of routine management of the state and gives the address national policy.
Court of Cassation. E 'entrusted with the supreme and final court of 3rd degree legal remedies. The Courts of Appeals hear appeals of grade 2. Appeals Courts 1st grade.
Council of State. It represents the highest authority to redeem the disputes between State agencies and appeals of public officials. Receives complaints from Tar regional courts which are 1st degree.
Constitutional Court. Autonomous body that is requested by State agencies to redeem the conflict on the constitutionality of a law and conflicts of powers between the branches of government and between government agencies.
ELECTORAL SYSTEM. It is based on the initiative of political parties to present candidates for public office: Mayor and City Council to the Parliament. The law lays down the policy. The elections shall be by direct universal character of Italian citizens and the vote is secret.
REFLECTIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS
There are obvious differences between the two Constitutions for the benefit of no coincidence that the Italian has always been considered the most important and interesting in the world. The credit goes to the founding fathers who have shown their best energies and intelligence to draft a modern constitution that also covers the transition regime: from monarchy to republic. A very difficult and complex undertaking that was facilitated by the existing parliamentary system under the Charter of Albertine monarchy which once was the pride of the Royal House of Savoy and the Kingdom of Savoy.
However, in both constitutions there is a strong reluctance on the process of modernization. Perhaps a form of (false) national pride, but the fact is that both require an urgent adjustment to reality. It 's the ideal way to propagate and disseminate the highest ideals of democracy in the world. There is a serious democratic deficit at the global level I do not understand why because, in fact, only a democratic system guarantees peace, social development, cultural and economic.
The Italian model, which is the best in the world (suitably enhanced) is applicable in any country in the world, provided it is based on the democratic system. How many wars could be avoided! The higher world growth could be created in support of education, to quality of life, to overcome poverty and hunger in the world.
Yet one wonders why all this, it seems easy to implement, does not happen? Because there is great difficulty in establishing a democratic regime? For despite the progress and development of the technology faster and faster to implement the reforms it takes a long time? No one has ever answered the question why the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has lasted more than half a century and still not seen any final acceptable. This conflict reminds us of the long wars of the Middle Ages, like the Hundred Years! But centuries have passed and still we see the perennial conflict. Why? Who benefited? Miraculously, we came out of the Cold War era! But it took common sense! At the risk of the fate of the Earth! After we sat on our laurels. It 'time to embark on a virtuous path. Greetings.
THE CURRENT SITUATION IS UNSUSTAINABLE AND OBJECTIVELY IS MUCH CONCERN.